ASTM C648 Test Standard

ASTM is an international standards organization that is located in the United States of America. The purpose it was introduced to the industries is to publish technical standard agreements for various materials, product, systems and others. Among the ASTM standards that are often used in the industries is ASTM C648.

ASTM C648 Test Standard


ASTM C648 is an international test standard designed for testing the breaking strength of ceramic tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile, porcelain tile and paver tile, having a facial area of at least 1 in. Manufacturing industries such as ceramic, tile, polymers and polymeric compounds often use this standard. Nowadays, ASTM standards are highly preferred by both corporate or government bodies. In Malaysia, most industries use the ASTM C648 standard in their companies. The Malaysian government has also adopted this standard.

Basically, ASTM C648 establishing whether or not a lot of ceramic tile meets the strength requirements which may appear in tile specifications. Breaking strength tests can be performed on using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The following are the properties measured through the ASTM C648:

  • Tile strength is measured in newtons, as read from the pressure gauge. This test will measure the pressure needed to cause the tile to break.


Glazed ceramic wall tile, ceramic mosaic tile, quarry tile and porcelain tile.


1. 3-point fixture

The diagram shows the 3-point bending test setup. The 3-point bending jig was mounted on an electromechanical material testing machine. The 3-point bending jig is an easy-to-use fixture that relies on the test machine to maintain alignment between the top and bottom parts. The 3-point test is used mainly for elastic and ductile materials.


This test does not require an extensometer because the purpose of this test is not to measure the displacement of elongation.

Type of UTM machine

1. VEW 2308A

The machine is designed by mechanical-electrical integration, the composition of the force-measuring Sensor, transmitter, microprocessor, mechanism of load drive, computer and color inkjet printer. The high-precision electronic motor can be set to five-speed, the components are connected by plug-way, Floor-standing models, it is taken account of modern industrial design and ergonomics in modelling and Coating. It can be tested with all the materials in the stretch, compression, bending, shear, embedded relay, Peeling. tearing, crack, etc, such as rubber, plastics, leather, metal, nylon wire, fabric, paper, aerospace, packaging, construction, petrochemical, electrical, vehicle, etc.

The implementation of standards and standard configuration:

  • GB/T4689.20-1996 Measuring fastness of leather’s adhesion
  • QB/T2710-2005 Measuring leather’s expansion and the rate of elongation
  • QB/T2711-2005 measuring tear force of leather
  • QB/T2712-2005 measuring leather’s strength and stretch of spherical crack test

Test Procedure

Tile is loaded into 3-point support & load application is distribution directly in the central.

3-point bending test using 2 parts jigs. The first part is placed on the top and the second part is placed on the bottom. For the bottom, it has 2 parallel ‘lower’ anvils to support the specimen. For the top, A single ‘upper’ anvil positioned exactly half-way between the 2 ‘lower’ anvils is used to apply compressive load to the specimen to determine its material characteristics.